This publication is part of ODIHR’s Words into Action Project, funded by the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs. and established in consultation with experts from across the OSCE region to better address the security needs of the Jewish communities. It reveals the practical steps governments must take to address security needs in cooperation with these communities.
This article studies eight European countries, investigating how the level of antisemitism as registered in national populations relates to the perception of antisemitism by the Jewish population in the same country. Furthermore, the article empirically identifies distinct aspects of antisemitism, deconstructing the concept of antisemitism and breaking it up into three kinds of empirically differently based and composed antisemitisms: classic antisemitism, Israel-derived antisemitism and Enlightenment-based antisemitism